Internet is part of the day to day of many people. It is a source of research for some, or leisure and work for others. The great computer network expands at great speed, and it is impossible to try to stop it. Such is the utility that is able to lend us, that since the decade of the 60, date of its creation, until today, have developed various ways to connect to it through multiple means, trying to improve their performance and facilitate their access to bring it closer to the general public.
However, this diversity of Internet access methods also entails that many forms of access to the network of networks still coexist, even though some have been forgotten and disused because they have been exceeded in terms of speed and quality of service. This obviously lends itself to confusion, and that is why in this article we will find everything necessary to understand what are the possibilities of Internet connection, its advantages, disadvantages and how they work.
Internet Connection by Telephone Line
Also called dial-up, it ‘s the oldest Internet connection method and it was the only one used when the network of networks took its first steps. The access is made by the user through a modem and a conventional telephone line. This type of connection is less and less used since the data transmission capacity does not exceed 56 kbps, which makes navigation very slow. With the popularization of broadband access services and their very accessible prices, dial-up access is practically extinct.
In addition to the low speed, the connection by telephone line is not stable and keeps the telephone line busy when connected to the internet. In other words, you surf the Internet or talk on the phone. Regardless of the time when the internet is accessed, the expenses of the telephone bill can increase considerably.
On the other hand, it is the simplest Internet connection. All you need is an available telephone line, a PC with a modem and an Internet access provider, either free or paid. In the case of paid access, they offer various plans with unlimited browsing hours and access to limited or unlimited data. It is necessary to remember that the quality and stability of the free access providers may be lower than the paid providers.
Internet connection by xDSL
The xDSL connection is provided through the conventional telephone network, but it differs from dial-up access. A modem converts the information into an electrical signal that transforms it into a frequency different to that used for the voice, in this way a signal does not interfere with the use of the telephone. This means that you can surf the internet and use the phone at the same time. However, it is good to remember that it is necessary that the PC has an Ethernet network board.
The xDSL service works by hiring an access provider, as does dial-up, and it is possible to access services at different speeds. For example, in the ADSL, the speed varies from 256 kbps to 8 Mbps; in the ADSL2 or ADSL2 + it goes from 256 kbps up to 24 Mbps; in the VDSL it can reach a speed of 52 Mbps and in the VDSL2 up to 100 Mbps.
The xDLS has the disadvantage that being a shared service, navigation can be slower during peak hours, when many users use the Internet simultaneously. ADSL, ADSL2, ADSL2 +, SDSL, IDSL, HDSL, SHDSL, VDSL and VDSL2 belong to this family of services , with ADSL being the most used worldwide.
What is ADSL?
The ADSL, or “Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line”, is a type of technology that, using a common telephone line, allows the user to digitally transfer data at high speed. The reason for this technology to be “asymmetric” is in the fact that there is a significant difference between the download (download) and upload (upload) rates.
Why is it possible to talk on the phone with ADSL while browsing?
Because ADSL technology divides the telephone line into three digital channels, being one for voice, another for download and the last for upload.
What are the differences between ADSL and ADSL2 / 2 +?
Basically, the most notable difference is speed and technology. While ADSL can reach download levels of 8 Mbps (megabytes per second), ADSL 2/2 + reaches up to 24 Mbps, however, both have the same maximum shipping limit: 1 Mbps.
Why is the upload speed of both of them the same?
The team that developed the ADSL2 / 2 + decided to only increase the download rate (without altering the upload rate), because according to the typical traffic profile of ADSL users, 1 Mbps would be sufficient for their needs.
Internet connection by radio (Wireless connections)
Internet access by radio is a way to extend a broadband connection to some place where the service is not available. That point can be from a small restricted area, such as an office, to a complete city. For that, it is necessary to configure a network without cables. Wi-fi and Wi-Max are included in this modality.
One of the advantages of the radio connection is the possibility of distributing the access and guarantee of mobility to the users. The basic infrastructure requires a point of delivery of Internet service, which can be a cable, xDSL or satellite access, a modem compatible with the service, an Access Point and computers with a receiver or wireless network adapter to capture the signal.
By sharing a high capacity connection, users can divide the expenses, at the same time, that the service guarantees them a permanent Internet connection and low cost of installation and maintenance. However, simultaneous use for downloads may impair access.
Internet connection by cable television
The cable connection is increasingly popular and uses the same infrastructure as the contracted cable service, which facilitates installation. Many cable television services offer Internet access at different speeds in the package. Only one cable transfers television service and internet data. A device called a splitter separates the cable signal from the web data, and a cable connected to a modem allows access to the internet.
One of the advantages of this type of connection is that it is enough to connect the modem cable to the computer to have a connection, without the need to dial or activate a service. For all this to work, it is necessary to have an Ethernet board installed. This type of access is only possible in regions where there are paid cable television services.
This type of access provides different types of speeds. The speed of navigation, and the limit of downloads and data upload, depend on the package that is contracted. In addition, the speed is not affected by the number of users or schedules in which the service is used. Unlike xDSL access, the user will always have the same Internet access speed, at any time.
Internet connection by Satellite
Within the framework of a large number of options that can be found to get a speed Internet connection and with certain security conditions, one of the possible alternatives is the technology called “satellite Internet”. Perhaps it is not the most economical proposal, but it can undoubtedly be very valuable at times, especially in rural areas.
Thus, in those sectors of the country in which broadband is conspicuous by its absence, whether through ADSL technology, cellular telephony or cable, one of the remaining alternatives is the satellite connection to the network. Obviously, the technological resources employed are not at all simple and require certain specialized tools that make the service more expensive.
One of the advantages of the satellite Internet connection is that the access does not depend on the location. In this way you will have access to the internet anywhere the coverage comes. However, the more remote the place where we are, the more powerful the signal will be.
However, in order to access the satellite Internet service, we will need specific equipment that usually has a very high cost. It is necessary to acquire an antenna capable of capturing the satellite signal and transmit it to the computer that has an internal or external receiver modem . In some cases, the antenna is supplied by the service provider itself. In some cases, speeds of up to 30 Mb can be achieved.
To be able to connect via satellite Internet, an artificial satellite is needed as a means of communication. This system can provide a service of similar quality to which any of the other broadband technologies known to date.
The artificial satellite works to connect to the Internet in a manner very similar to the way in which digital television transmissions are made, since the standard used is the same. In both cases the DVB, or Digital Video Broadcasting protocol is used .
Technology to be used for satellite Internet access
Anyone who wants to enjoy a satellite Internet connection must acquire certain technological tools: a satellite dish, a decoder and a satellite modem. With these three elements, you will be able to connect to the network through the services of any satellite Internet provider.
How does the connection mechanism work in these cases? In principle, the satellite dish captures the satellite signal, which is then conducted to the decoder and, finally, transferred to the modem through a cable. Once the modem has a signal, the computer connected to it can join the network.
Regarding the advantages that can be highlighted of this modality, besides the possibility of reaching geographical points to which other technologies do not access, it is worth mentioning that the satellite connection can incorporate mobility, through a simple mobile antenna that provides a connection in any time and place.
Also, satellite Internet connections usually offer speeds and bandwidths that exceed ADSL services, for example, although of course at higher rates. In addition, to these more onerous quotas the expense of buying the necessary technical elements, such as the satellite dish, the decoder and the satellite modem, must be added. At the same time, it is very likely that the installation must be carried out through a technical service, due to the characteristics and complexity of it.
PLC: Internet through the electrical network
Undoubtedly, PLC technology (Power Line Communications) is one of the most interesting forms of connection mentioned in this post, since it takes advantage of power lines to transmit data at high speed.
This type of technology allows us to access an Internet connection from the house plugs. Although it does not sound very logical according to what we are used to, such as connections by telephone line, wireless, satellite and others, the lines of access to the network through electric power are already a reality in many countries.
Power Line Communication (PLC) allows access to the Internet and create internal networks to share data between different devices, taking advantage of each electrical appliance of the home as a point of access to the web for any device. It is an excellent alternative for places with limited Wi-Fi connectivity.
Currently it is one of the alternative connection systems most used by users around the world, since among many of the benefits it offers, is the possibility of using the electrical wiring of any house to exchange data between the nodes of a local network, with the convenience of not having to invest in the necessary cable to mount it, something that many homes and small businesses are grateful for.
This type of connection works with adapters, which are placed in the plugs and take the Internet signal. It does not matter that there are walls that interfere with the signal, only electrical appliances are needed. In this way, wireless networks are created in the home, which, although they do not reach Wi-Fi speed, also have other advantages.
For example, to make a network connection using Ethernet cables the system would be much more complex and less practical. The installation of a PLC network, moreover, is very simple. However, its performance depends on the state of the household electrical installation.
Points to improve in PLC technology
Also, since the PLC sometimes uses the same frequency used by radio amateurs, interference may occur. Another drawback that has made this technology even more difficult today is the interference caused by appliances that consume more energy, such as microwaves or washing machines.
As for the connection speed, PLC networks can theoretically reach a speed of more than 100 megabits per second. However, everything depends on the factors mentioned above. As with all relatively new technology, this type of connection is in a phase of development and improvement.
Thus, a group of companies called OPERA (“Open PLC European Research Alliance”) is currently facing a second phase of the PLC, with the aim of having a connection technology via electricity that does not produce radio interference and reaches a Speed of up to 200 megabits per second.
Meanwhile, the PLC occupies a minimum strip of global connections, mainly due to the deficiencies that it still presents and the high cost it still entails. However, the practicality and simplicity of PLC use technology allow us to think that if technologically it achieves a higher quality it is likely that in a short time it could become a commercially viable option.
Mobile connections through telephony: 3G and 4G connections
The connection to the internet through cell phones is getting better. The arrival of 3G technology provided broadband to cell phones and granted a navigation speed with considerable acceleration. However, the maximum expression, at least until today, is the appearance in the market of the 4G standard, which allows receiving and sending data at speeds previously impossible to reach, which gives us the possibility to watch videos in HD quality and listen to music directly from the cloud, among others.
Mobility is a great advantage of services of this type. In the case of GSM networks, the transfer speed can reach 800 kbps. In the case of CDMA networks, the transfer can reach a speed of up to 2 Mbps .
These numbers are widely surpassed when our phone is compatible with 3G or 4G, which can greatly exceed these figures, reaching in the case of 3G up to 2 Mbps, and in the case of 4G up to 200 Mbps.
4G technology is based on IP. Your service will be of high quality and high security, offering your consumers services of any kind, at any time and in any place.
The 4G concept goes beyond a cell phone. The new technologies of mobile broadband networks will allow access to data in devices that operate with IP. The two most explored technologies are: WiMAX and LTE.
What is 4G?
Basically, 4G technology is the logical evolution of the previous mobile wireless connection technologies, and that in this instance can reach minimum transmission speeds of 100 Megabits per second (Mbps), represented by the communication of two mobiles at two points different communicating, or by a mobile and a high speed server, always maintaining high QoS standards.
The greatest benefits of 4G
The advantages of 4G with respect to the previous Internet connection technologies are multiple, but the most important for the user are:
- Convergence of a wide variety of services, previously accessible only with fixed broadband
- Costs reduction
- Widening the use of broadband in society
4G was developed to offer services based on mobile broadband such as Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), video chat, mobile TV, HDTV content, Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) and basic services such as voice and data, all at a high speed and quality.